Tuesday, October 8, 2013



Nepal is agrarian country with 65.5% of the people depending on the agricultural activities (CBS, 2002). Agriculture contributes 39.3% of share to the national GDP whereas livestock sector contributes 25.6% to agricultural GDP in 2009/10 which is expected to increase by 4.9% and 5.9% respectively in fiscal year 2011/12. Pig population in steadily growing in Nepal with 1062350 in year 2009/10 (CBS, 2012). The primary purpose of pig keeping in Nepal is meat production. The demand for meat is still slowly growing and pork consumption is increasing (16992 tons in 2008/9). Pig production plays a vital role in the hill farming system of Nepal providing both cash income to farmer and manure for crop production. Oli (1986) stated that pigs play a significant role in contributing to home consumption as well as providing additional income, serving as an insurance against possibility of crop failure on small farm holdings. Traditionally, pigs have been associated with low social groups, and so these animals have been neglected in improvement programmes. Pigs are reared on a poor plane of nutrition with an indiscriminate breeding pattern and in poor housing.

Local breeds are source of promising alleles significant for future genetic improvement of unpredictable economic value which can contribute to worldwide biodiversity if their competitiveness to exotics is proved for production systems and adaptation traits identifying controlling alleles (Huyen et al., 2005). Long-term and simple strategies are necessary to efficiently exploit the potential of indigenous breeds (Philipsson, n.d.). Increased productivity per animal along with the variable socio-economic and cultural values of piggery in different societies or regions should be considered while coming up with the effective breeding strategy in Nepalese context.

Monday, October 7, 2013


The purpose of a neurological examination is to detect neurological disease and to define its location within the nervous system. It is the single most important step in the diagnosis of neurological disorders and may also be useful in the investigation of conditions that primarily affect different body systems but which can have secondary effects on the nervous system. After localising a lesion to a specific region or regions within the nervous system, a differential diagnosis can be formulated using information gained from the history and physical examination, thereby allowing diagnostic effort to be appropriately directed. Unfortunately, neurological examination is often perceived to be rather complicated and this has discouraged its more common application in clinical practice. However, with a little experience the procedure can be carried out rapidly (in 10 minutes or so) and with confidence in the results obtained.

The past ten years have been marked by a dramatic increase in the availability of advanced, neuro-diagnostic testing for veterinary patients. Magnetic resonance imaging, in particular, has enhanced our ability to diagnosis complex and elusive neurological disorders. Although MRI and CT scan are sensitive for the identification of abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS), both imaging modalities lack specificity and may be misleading when interpreted outside the context of patient signalment. It is critical to interpret neuro-diagnostic findings in light of the patient history, the physical examination and perhaps, most importantly, the neurological examination. The precise neuroanatomic diagnosis is indispensible for the generation of an appropriate differential diagnosis. Furthermore, the correct differential diagnosis allows the clinician to interpret neuro-diagnostic tests with greater accuracy.



Escherichia coli, a gut bacterium of warm blooded animals, is attributed to food borne diseases. Milk and milk products are usually contaminated with E. coli. Consumption of raw and post pasteurized contaminated milk have led to several disease outbreaks globally. Validated indigenous knowledge serves as a valuable asset to prevent such potential outbreaks. Panchagavya is a Vedic fermented concoction of cow dung, urine, milk, curd and ghee. A study was carried out to investigate effect of Panchagavya on E. coli in procured milk. Samples of whole, skimmed and pasteurized milk were pour plated at the rate of 2 petridishes per sample over Violet Red Bile Agar Medium and treated as control. For treatment 1ml Panchagavya was added per ml of all three types of milk sample and cultured. The whole experiment including control was replicated ten times. Results showed no growth of colonies in the petridishes which were treated with Panchagavya indicating selective destruction of E. coli in milk. Urinary carbonate, whey proteins, casein, butyric acid, bacteriophages, endosymbiotic and lysogenic bacteria present in Panchagavya may have role in destruction of E. coli. Further researches are needed to isolate active compounds present in Panchagavya and to explore their mechanism of antibacterial action.
Key words: Panchagavya, Escherichia coli, milk, ethnoveterinary medicine

Article reviewed:
Subramaniam, A., 2005. Effect of Panchagavya on Escherichia coli in procured milk. Indian Vet. J., July, 82, pp.799-800.    



Rhino that once roamed freely across the flood plains of Chitwan today, have drastically reduced their numbers to scattered populations due to rampant poaching coupled with habitat loss. The reason for fall in rhino population is directly linked to rhino-human conflict in the buffer zone of the park. High rate of population growth and lack of land has forced mankind to make shelter round the buffer zone due to which rhinos frequently enter human settlement causing great loss to property and human life. Low economic standard of people living around the national parks has also tempted them to poach rhino. Meanwhile with improvement in habitats, the wildlife populations and their mobility are also expected to increase possibly raising human-wildlife conflict incidences. The incidences for the human-rhino conflict have risen exponentially in buffer zones of the Chitwan National Park since last few years. Trespassing of the rhino in human habitats and crop field has resulted in significant crop and human loss. For now, the prevention of rhino trespassing human community inhumane and often lethal means such as electric fencing, gun shooting, snare trap are widely under use. A conservation plan that naturally controls entering of rhino in human settlement that also uplifts economy of the indigenous people living round buffer area is required for success since most household round the area are under poverty margin. Mentha and Chamomile are such plants whose aroma is offensive for rhino. The value of these plants seed and oil has great international monetary value. Mentha and Chamomile cultivation in Shiv Community Forest, Bardiya, Nepal kept the rhino off the bay decreasing human-wildlife conflict and crop loss. The efficiency of rhino deterrent plants Mentha and Chamomile in reducing human-rhino conflict isn’t documented till now. Thus, this research will investigate the efficacy of Mentha and Chamomile on preventing rhino from entering human community and access the role of Medicinal Aromatic Plants (MAPs) in economic upliftment of people of Gardi VDC. Rhino hates aroma from the naturally occurring herbs Mentha and Chamomile keeping it away from human settlement. So, cultivation of these plants has a great chance of reducing rhino-human conflict in buffer area. Besides the oil extracted from these plants have very high market value that could act as an alternative source of income for the indigenous people living in these areas. Study site of this research is Gardi VDC where ward no. 2 Imiliya is regarded as treatment while the ward no. 4 Shitalpur is treated as control. 50 household from each ward with their landholding in the area adjoining the Chitwan National Park will be purposively selected for the research. The potential applicability of the Mentha and Chamomile plants in the agro-climatic condition in the research site will be verified by pre-testing. This study will draw the attention of researchers, conservationists, wildlife experts, governmental sector and different other related organizations to develop and disseminate appropriate rhino trespassing prevention technology to the community around buffer zone while respecting their local, traditional, and indigenous knowledge in a participatory manner.

Saturday, October 5, 2013



Advancement and commercialization of the technology has made mobile phone (MP), a long range portable electronic device for personal telecommunication, cheaper and accessible to everyone. MPs are one of the most used non medical devices by the health care workers (HCWs) as an essential accessory to their social and professional life. But hand hygiene is under-emphasized and sanitary measures to clean MPs are greatly overlooked in health care settings. The hands of HCWs play an important role in transmission of nosocomial infections which continue to increase risks of mortality and morbidity in patients. High temperature due to close contact to the body makes MPs ideal breeding sites for microbes. MPs demand constant handling in diverse circumstances often coming in contact to mouth, ear and eye elevating chances of infection to patients and HCWs themselves. MPs of HCWs harbour many harmful pathogens which include antibiotic resistant bacteria like methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, aminoglycoside resistant Enterococcus sp etc. While fungi commonly isolated include Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium sp, Fusarium sp etc. Raising awareness on hand hygiene and regular decontamination of MPs may reduce the risk of cross-contamination while evidence base policy to restrict MPs in health care environment should be considered.

Key words: Microbiology, mobile phone, bacteria, health care workers

Friday, May 25, 2012


Sushil Khatiwada
Final year Veterinary Science student
Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan


Despite huge development in the ICT sector with accessibility of cheaper technologies, lack of enterprise specific information, networking and knowledge sharing are still the key hurdles of commercial agribusiness promotion in Nepal. Mobile phones and internet are among commonly used technological advances but delivery of agriculture based services through these portals seem still far away. Easy access to local meteorological forecast, market information, streamlined support services, ways to improve production and product diversification by the use of short message service (SMS), toll free phone number and internet based applications directly benefits the eager farmers. ICT based interventions provide unprecedented efficiency and accuracy to extension services ensuring better on and off farm results. Delivery of the SMS based market information to vegetable farmers in Kailali proved to be more than helpful to commercialize the vegetable based enterprises in the region, while the exploitation of ICT in agribusiness sector in Africa and India has transformed subsistence farming into sustainable commercialized agro-enterprises. With lesser youths getting into the agribusiness sector, emphasizing the suitable ramification of ICT sector by policy makers, ICT professionals and concerned stakeholders will serve to promote the commercial agribusiness activities in Nepal.

Key words: ICT, agribusiness, commercialization, youths, Nepal

Common Vices of Dog and their Management

Nepalese dog owners are well versed with the behavioral problems of dogs. Some of them manage to eliminate these problems while others learn to live with them. Most experienced dog owners are familiar with common dog behavior problems, but some may wonder why dogs exhibit these behaviors. Barking, biting, chewing and many other common dog behaviors are often misunderstood and mishandled by dog owners. One new to the dog ownership, considering getting a dog or just wishing to better manage behavioral problems should thoroughly understand the most common dog behavior problems as a first step to solve and prevent them. A solid foundation of obedience training is a prerequisite for better control common of dog behavior problems.

1. Barking
Most dogs bark, howl and whine to some degree but excessive barking is considered a behaviour problem. Before you can correct barking, determine why your dog is vocalizing in the first place. These are the most common types of barking:
  • Warning or Alert
  • Playfulness/Excitement
  • Attention-seeking
  • Anxiety
  • Boredom
  • Responding to Other Dogs
If your dog barks when someone's at the door, it could be an alarm or a greeting. Either way, it can be upsetting to both you and your guest. To reduce the barking, teach your dog a new routine. Pick a spot away from but within sight of the door. Then teach him to lie down, and stay when you say, "Go to your spot." Using that phrase before opening the door will help your dog stay calm and give him something to do while he waits to be greeted. It can help to have a friend with a treat come to the door, but only open it when he's quiet. If you do this repeatedly, he'll learn to be quiet to get the treat.

2. Chewing
Dogs, especially puppies, explore the world with their mouth. And, they like to chew because it calms them. But inappropriate chewing can be destructive and pose serious health risks for your dog. A sock, for instance, can cause an intestinal obstruction. The most common reasons dogs chew are as follows:
  • Puppy Teething
  • Boredom / Excess Energy
  • Anxiety
  • Curiosity (especially puppies)
Discourage this habit early on. Encourage your dog to chew on the right things by providing plenty of chew toys. Keep personal items away from your dog. When you are not home, keep your dog crated or confined to an area where less destruction can be caused. If you catch your dog chewing the wrong thing, quickly correct him with a sharp noise. Then, replace the item with a chew toy. One of the most important things you can do: make sure your dog gets plenty of exercise.

3. Digging
If given the chance, most dogs will do some amount of digging - it's a matter of instinct. Certain breeds, like Terriers, are more prone to digging because of their hunting histories. In general, most dogs dig for these reasons:
  • Boredom or Excess Energy
  • Anxiety or Fear
  • Hunting Instinct
  • Comfort-Seeking (such as nesting or cooling off)
  • Hiding Possessions (like bones or toys)
  • To Escape or Gain Access
If your dog digs up your garden, it can get pretty frustrating for you. Try and determine the cause of the digging, then work to eliminate that source. Spend more time with your dog, give him more exercise, and work on extra training. If digging is inevitable, set aside an area where your dog can learn it is "okay" to dig, like a sand box. Then bury some favourite toys and watch him enjoy digging them out.

4. Separation Anxiety
Separation anxiety is one of the most commonly discussed dog behaviour problems. Overt manifestations include vocalization, chewing, inappropriate urination and defecation, and other forms of destruction that occur when a dog is separated from his owner. Not all of these actions are the result of separation anxiety. Signs of true separation anxiety include:
  • Dog becomes anxious when owner prepares to leave
  • Misbehavior occurs in the first 15-45 minutes after owner leaves
  • Dog wants to follow owner around constantly
  • Dog tries to be touching owner whenever possible
It's important to teach your dog that you will always come back. At first, leave him alone for no more than 5 or 10 minutes. Then gradually increase the time he's alone. Leaving him a chew toy and leaving the radio or TV on will help calm him. And being simply matter-of-fact when you go and return lets him know that being alone isn't bad. Crate-training your dog, so that he has a safe haven, is one of the easiest ways to prevent separation anxiety. However, it is difficult to crate train an anxious older dog when this behaviour is well established. Talk to your veterinarian about behavioural modification or medication if the problem persists.

5. Inappropriate Elimination
Inappropriate urination and defecation are among the most frustrating dog behaviours. They can damage areas of your home and make your dog unwelcome in public places or at the homes of others. It is most important that you discuss this behaviour with your veterinarian first to rule out health problems. If no medical cause is found, try to determine the reason for the behaviour, which can come down to one of the following:
  • Submissive/excitement urination
  • Territorial Marking
  • Anxiety
  • Attention-seeking
  • Lack of proper housebreaking
Inappropriate elimination is unavoidable in puppies, especially before 12 weeks of age. Older dogs are another story - many require serious behaviour modification to rid them of the habit because you must often alter their perception of themselves.

6. Begging
Begging is a bad habit, but many dog owners unfortunately encourage it. This can lead to digestive problems and obesity. Dogs beg because they love food - but table scraps are not treats, and food is not love. Yes, it is hard to resist that longing look, but giving in "just this once" creates a problem in the long run. In a pack setting, a subordinate would never beg from alpha dogs without reprimand. When you teach your dog that begging is permitted, you jeopardize your role as pack leader.
 Before you sit down to eat, tell your dog to stay, preferably where he will not be able to stare at you. The first step in correcting begging is to never give a dog any food from the table. If you're consistent, he will have no reason to beg. You can also remove your dog from the room while you eat or have him go to his crate. If you want him to stay, teach him to go to his special spot and lie down while the family eats. Some people think it's cute to see a dog sitting up waiting expectantly for a bit of food from their plate. Others don't.

7. Chasing
A dog's desire to chase moving things is simply a display of predatory instinct. Many dogs will chase other animals, people, motorbikes, cycles and cars. All of these can lead to dangerous and devastating outcomes. While you may not be able to stop your dog from trying to chase, you can take steps to prevent disaster.
  • Keep your dog on a leash at all times (unless directly supervised indoors).
  • Train your dog to come when called.
  • Have a dog whistle or noisemaker on hand to get your dog's attention.
  • Stay aware and watch for potential triggers, like joggers and vehicles.
Your best chance at success is to keep the chase from getting out of control. Dedicated training over the course of your dog's life will teach him to focus his attention on you first - before running off.

8. Jumping Up
Puppies jump up to reach and greet their mothers. Later, they may jump up when greeting people. But letting him do so will keep others from coming to see you. Dogs may also jump up to exert dominance. A jumping dog can be annoying and even dangerous. There are many methods to stop a dog's jumping, but not all will be successful. Lifting a knee, grabbing the paws, or pushing the dog away might work for some, but for most dogs this sends the wrong message.
Jumping up is often attention-seeking behaviour, so with acknowledgment of your dog's actions provide a reward. The best method: simply turn away and ignore your dog unless he has his front paws on the ground. Do not make eye contact, speak, or touch your dog. Go about your business. When he relaxes and remains still, calmly reward him. It won't take long before your dog gets the message. Another approach is to tell him to sit. It also helps to keep your greetings low key. That helps your dog learn to control his own excitement.

9. Biting
Dogs bite for reasons that can be traced back to instinct and pack mentality. Any dog can bite if it feels threatened or anxious.  Puppies bite and nip on other dogs and people as a means for exploring their environment and learning their place in the pack. Owners must teach their puppies that mouthing and biting are not acceptable. Beyond puppy behaviour, the motivation to bite or snap typically comes from the following:
  • Fear or Defensiveness
  • Protection of Property
  • Pain or Sickness
  • Dominance Assertion
  • Predatory Instinct
Owners and breeders are the ones who can help decrease the tendency for any type of dog to bite through proper training, socialization and breeding practices. Socializing a dog early teaches him to feel comfortable around people. Gradually expose him to a variety of settings so he can learn to feel safe. And, spending time having fun regularly with him helps him learn to trust people. You still need to watch for signs that your dog is uncomfortable and then do what you can to reduce his anxiety level. Many biting incidents involve children or food, so be extra careful at these times.

10. Aggression
Dog aggression is exhibited by growling, snarling, showing teeth, lunging and biting. It is important to know that any dog has the potential to become aggressive, regardless of breed or history. However, dogs with violent or abusive histories and those bred from dogs with aggressive tendencies are much more likely to exhibit aggressive behaviour towards people or other dogs. There are multiple reasons for aggression in dogs, ranging from dominance to possessiveness to fear. But it's almost always associated with some type of anxiety
The best way to address issues of aggression is to work with a professional trainer to learn how to teach your dog to depend on you for everything it wants. That doesn't mean your dog should be submissive. But he needs to take all his cues for behaviour from you. Never leave an aggressive dog alone with children or unfamiliar adults, and be prepared to muzzle him in public places, if necessary. Serious measures should be taken to keep others safe from aggressive dogs.